St. Williams Conservation Reserve Is Preserving The Carolinian Forest

St. Williams Conservation Reserve Is Preserving The Carolinian Forest

Nestled deep in the heart of Southern Ontario, the St. Williams Conservation Reserve is 1085 hectares of reclaimed Carolinian forest. In the early 1900’s the settlers had cut down the original forest for timber and the light sandy soil had begun to erode without the tree roots and forest floor holding it in place. The area was quickly becoming a desert when pioneering conservationists began replanting trees to bring back the forest.  This is how the St. Williams Forestry Station came into existence.FB_IMG_1524513090341

In 2007 the St Williams Conservation Reserve was established under the Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves act to protect the extraordinary biodiversity and unique cultural and natural heritage of the site. A not-for-profit Community Council oversees the day to day management of the Reserve and works in partnership with the MNRF to protect and restore the lands contained in the Reserve, while also encouraging the public to enjoy compatible recreational and cultural opportunities within the Reserve.

I joined the St Williams Conservation Reserve Community Council this winter and have enjoyed working with a team of people dedicated to forest restoration and conservation. The Reserve is home to many different types of birds, animals, reptiles, and insects, many of which are Species at Risk in Ontario. The Council works closely with MNRF staff to ensure that these species are protected.

Coyote Track
Wild Turkey Track


The SWCR provides a refuge for species at risk and also provides a location perfect for researchers, scientists, citizen scientists, and the public who are interested in studying the flora and fauna that call this southernmost part of the Carolinian zone home.


Summer of Small Streams

Summer of Small Streams

I’ve had the same experience this season. Stream fishing has been great!

The Water Calls

It’s been a strange summer here.

One of those summers where plans were put in place, routes were mapped out and then everything changed. This happened to me a few times this summer, first when a new boat wandered into my life, then when I signed up for a course for my professional life and again when everything went from flood mode to fire mode.

The unfortunate result was that I barely managed to get out fishing much at all.

The fortunate result was that the fishing I did do was that much better as a result.


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Eastern Hognose Snake- Road Recovery

While driving the back roads of Norfolk county yesterday afternoon I came across a large snake on the road. I stopped and went to remove it from the road. The animal appeared to be basking in the sun on the warm asphalt, as reptiles are wont to do. Unfortunately this individual had suffered head trauma from a passing vehicle.  It was a very large Eastern Hognose snake, the largest specimen I have ever seen.


Due to the size and very good condition of the snake I contacted the Long Point Basin Land Trust, an excellent conservation organization that I volunteer with and they authorized me to collect the snake for research purposes. Eastern Hognose snakes are a protected species in Ontario as they are listed as Threatened.

Hognose snakes are fascinating animals and it is a tragedy that they are now a Species At Risk. Unfortunately the areas they need to live and breed are the areas we want to live and play. They are running out of room and we are literally running them over.

Although Hognose snakes can mimic cobras by flattening their necks and imitating a hood, they are non venomous and completely harmless. They are very shy and will become frantic if disturbed. They will flip on their backs, stick their tongues out and play dead. They just want to be left alone.

Eastern Hognose
At 81.5 cms, this female is at the top of the size range
Puff Adder
Easter Hognose snakes are the only snakes in Ontario that can mimic a cobra by flattening their necks into false hoods. However hognose snakes, sometimes called Puff Adders, are non venomous and completely harmless.

Notes From The Field-May 30 2017

Notes From The Field-May 30 2017

Today was a busy day, although it started out slow, with a weather delay. I was scheduled to help the Long Point Basin Land Trust with the annual Fox Snake survey but we had to delay due to a morning rain shower. I spent the morning trudging through bush and fields looking for the elusive snakes but yet again we were disappointed. My time wasn’t wasted though as I was taking pictures of all the plants I found interesting. Many of them I haven’t identified yet.

If anyone knows what the following plants are, I’d love to know.


On one of the properties surveyed, there is a very healthy deer population. There are subtle signs of their presence everywhere you look if you know what to look for.  Tracks and scat are the obvious signs to look for and there is plenty of that. By looking carefully, one can also find deer hair, laydowns (bedding areas) shed antlers in the spring and lots of game trails. Can you see the game trails in the photos below?


After the snake survey and the subsequent removal of several ticks, I went off in search of some fishing. I went to one of my favourite spots and ate my lunch while watching the birds. The spot I fish at is the mouth of a small creek that flows out of a provincially significant wetland. The creek on one side of the road is contained within the boundary of a national wildlife reserve. I was standing on that side, in the reserve, when I looked down and saw movement in the water. My first thought was that I’d found a water snake!! But no, this was much much better. I had stumbled upon a school of spawning Longnose Gar!!! I estimated there to be well over 50 individual fish in the school and they were amazing!! Up till that point I had only seen one or two and here there were scads of them and I could watch them in their natural habitat and watch their spawning behaviour. Longnose Gar is an ancient fish, practically dinosaurs, and they are one of very few fish species that breathes air. They perform a gas exchange by skimming and snapping along the surface of the water and this behaviour was very apparent today. I was mesmerised!



While the bugs were horrible and I did get a sunburn, it was all told a wonderful day in the field in Norfolk County!!

Join Us For International Day For Biological Diversity at Bonnieheath Lavender Farm

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail

On May 21 from 1-3pm Nature’s Calling Outdoor Education Center is hosting a BioBlitz at Bonnieheath Lavender Farm in Norfolk County. We will be exploring fields, forest, and pond to discover and catalogue the amazing diversity of life in Carolinian Canada!

I will be guiding and helping to identify plants and animals on the property. Free pizza and drinks will be provided.

Bonnieheath Estate Lavender & Winery, 410 Concession 12 Townsend Rd., Waterford

Sponsored by the Biodiversity Education and Awareness Network (BEAN)

Welcoming Home The Birds

I regularly work with the Long Point Bay Land Trust during the field season and this has given me plenty of great experiences in helping to protect and conserve Southern Ontario wildlife. Last week we cleaned out wild bird nesting boxes in preparation for the return of migratory birds. The boxes were built and placed in habitat suitable for native bluebirds, in the hopes of fostering a population of these elusive birds.

Emptying a nesting box of last year’s nest


Nesting boxes are a common sight throughout Southern Ontario as farmers and birding enthusiasts install them along fields and woodlands. The bluebird suffered a serious decline in the mid 20th century due to various factors, including pesticide use and loss of habitat. Bluebirds are cavity nesters and have several requirements for where they will set up housekeeping. Unfortunately, the bird boxes that are provided for them are prime real estate for many other species of birds, necessitating that they be emptied and cleaned yearly of the previous inhabitants nests.

Sparrows, starlings, and house wrens will all take over the nesting boxes, and some birds will even take over a bluebird’s nest and lay their own eggs. We sadly found evidence of this in some of the boxes, with the original bird’s eggs pushed to the bottom of the nest box. These eggs had partially developed embryos inside. The invading bird then laid and hatched it’s own clutch in the stolen nest.

The hatched egg of a house wren

We found nests containing a variety of natural materials, from the usual grass and twigs, to waterfowl feathers and moss. One ingenious bird had even woven a piece of discarded plastic wrap into her nest. I found that each nest told a story; about the species of the bird who made it, about the success of the hatch, and about the dramas that unfold in the bird world.

Plastic interwoven amid twigs and moss

I look forward to monitoring the bird boxes throughout the season and seeing what new life emerges. We can only hope that we did well in the eyes of the bluebirds and will be rewarded with their approval.







A Cuban Vacation, The Flu,and Lots of Lizards

I spent Feb 10 to 17 in Varadero, Cuba and had high hopes for lots of fishing. I brought rods and tackle and all kinds of gear with me and had so many plans for fishing excursions. Unfortunately,not only did one of my reels get wrecked during the flight (#thanksnothanks #stillmad #Sunwing) but I caught the flu and became very sick. 10 days later and I’m still trying to get over it.

Since I was so ill my husband and I ended up staying close to the resort. Luckily we are both what’s known as ‘herpers’, that is, we have a great interest in reptiles. Part of the appeal of Cuba for us is the amount of wild reptiles and how accessible they. No need to go into the jungle, a walk down the sidewalk will furnish plenty of opportunities to view specimens of various species.

I am sorry that my dreams of catching barracuda and redfish didn’t come true but if I had to get sick at least I had great ‘friends’ to keep me company.




Cuban Curly Tailed Lizard
Brown Anole

The lizards are resort cats kept me entertained when I felt well enough to leave the room. If one has to get sick, paradise is a good of a place as any!


View from our room

How to Fill and Read a Glass Barometer

Science Manuals

By: Professors Lally & Whittaker


barometer 1 Goether Barometer (SOURCE: The Weather Doctor)

Glass weather barometers are used to predict precipitation, humidity, and weather patterns. Glass barometers were first invented and used in the 16th century by Wolfgang von Goethe, a German mathematician.

A weather barometer is also called a “storm glass” or “Goethe Barometer.” The tool works by measuring atmospheric pressure to predict incoming weather. Since the glass is only filled halfway with water, the other half is exposed to the atmosphere. When the outdoor atmospheric pressure rises, the pressure in the glass decreases, and causes the water to move down the spout. Conversely, when pressure decreases outside, pressure in the glass increases, and the water moves up the spout, and often times pours out. Below, you will learn to fill and read a glass barometer (Weather Underground).

 How to Fill the Barometer


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Ending the Snapping Turtle Hunt In Ontario

Ending the Snapping Turtle Hunt In Ontario

Despite being a Species At Risk, snapping turtles are still legally hunted in Ontario. On December 19 the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry (MNRF) announced proposed changes to hunting and trapping rules for small game and furbearers. Unbelievably, the snapping turtle is still considered small game in Ontario and is the only reptile legally hunted for sport in the province. The MNRF proposes limiting, but not eliminating, the season and bag limits for snapping turtles and bullfrogs. The public has until January 30th to weigh in on the suggested amendments.

Turtles are the most threatened species worldwide and even in our own province 7 of our 8 species are at risk of becoming endangered. Many threats such as habitat loss, road mortality, and poaching, affect all of Ontario’s reptiles. However snapping turtles are especially vulnerable due to their own biology. It can take a snapping turtle up to 20 years to mature and begin to reproduce. They experience limited reproduction success, which means that very few eggs hatch and reach adulthood. An adult must reproduce many times over before it can replace itself, let alone increase the population. Therefore, every adult that is removed from the general population strikes a blow to the entire species. Currently, residents with a fishing license can harvest 2 snapping turtles per day during the summer and they have a possession limit of 5. One

Nest predation also threatens reproductive success

hunter alone could potentially decimate an entire population in one season.

The snapping turtle does not hold a place of high esteem in the public view. It is not cute and it is not friendly. There are many misconceptions about this creature and many people erroneously fear it. However, it has an important part in the ecosystem. It keeps the environment clean by disposing of dead animals and fish, it creates paths and tunnels underwater that other animals need to use and it cleans up underwater vegetation. We may never know how much we rely on the snapping turtle to do until we’ve let it disappear forever.

You can have your say on ending the snapping turtle hunt in Ontario by clicking here

Conservation In Carolinian Canada

Conservation In Carolinian Canada

I’ve lived in Southern Ontario all of my life. I grew up on a family run dairy farm in the middle of rural  Haldimand-Norfolk. I consider myself privileged to have had the freedom of the woods, fields, and streams as a child and I think it was this freedom to wander and discover that  lit a life long passion for Ontario wildlife and nature in my heart.

Continue reading “Conservation In Carolinian Canada”